There were also more concrete sources of division, the historical rivalry between popes and emperors, and the rising ambition of western states to wrest from Byzantium the remnants of its empire in Italy were fuelled by the failures of the crusades in permanently securing the Holy Land for Christendom.Blame was apportioned to either side for the lack of success.
There were also more concrete sources of division, the historical rivalry between popes and emperors, and the rising ambition of western states to wrest from Byzantium the remnants of its empire in Italy were fuelled by the failures of the crusades in permanently securing the Holy Land for Christendom.
The ban was later lifted for the former, otherwise, they would not have been much use as Crusaders, one supposes.
It is also true that many of the Crusader leaders, notably Simon of Montfort, had actually refused to attack Christian Zara and a significant number of men had even left the Crusade over the issue.
The Byzantines were considered to lack the will to fight the common Muslim enemy while, from the other side, the Crusaders were seen as opportunists out to grab the choicest parts of the Byzantine Empire in the east.
In a sense, both sides were right in their judgement.
The Third Crusade (1187-1192 CE), although achieving some notable military successes, had failed completely in its original objective of recapturing Jerusalem from the Muslim Sultan of Egypt and Syria, Saladin (r. The celebrated Sultan was now dead, but the Holy City remained in Muslim hands. The Fourth Crusade was thus called for by Pope Innocent III (r. As previously, those who went to the Holy Land and fought the infidels would receive a remission of their sins, but as an added incentive, Innocent III now extended this ‘benefit’ to those who gave the necessary money to fund a warrior to go in their stead.
The Pope’s timing was not the best, especially considering the Holy City had anyway been in Muslim hands since 1187 CE.
1189-1199 CE), who had promised to return to the Holy Land and finish his undone work during the Third Crusade, died on campaign in France.
Unlike the previous Crusade, then, this was not to be a “Kings' Crusade”.
The Fourth Crusade thus gained its infamous reputation as the most cynical and profit-seeking of all the crusades.
The Byzantines saw themselves as the defenders of Christendom, the beacon which shone out across the Mediterranean and central Asia, hosts to the holiest city outside Jerusalem, and the rock which stood against the tide of Islam sweeping in from the east.