Beyond Good And Evil Essays

He then elaborates with examples such as the Stoics (forcing their truth onto nature) and Kantian thinking (a priori, which he argues does not exist, yet is necessary), claiming he uses nothing more than circular reasoning.Finally, he criticizes Descartes' famous "I think therefore I am", claiming that it is not the "I" that is thinking, rather the thought itself.Concludingly, he asserts that morals are based primarily on fear, with them creating a safe space where aggressive or lively individuals will be seen as a threat, due to morality preferring the tame and safe over the lively and aggressive.

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He then goes on to explain the ladder of sacrifice which religion creates (first demanding sacrifice of one's kin, then oneself, then our will, freedom and strength) and of which we have reached a new rung, it now demands we paradoxically sacrifice God.

He then finally concludes with how religion can mean different things to different people (or classes), but how Christianity values reversing our morals , devaluing our "noble instincts".

He asserted that humanity must rise "beyond good and evil" and regain respect for nobility and power if they were to excel.

Nietzsche wanted a social system with a "leader type", a genuinely superior ruling class, with slaves as its basis, at the opposite social extreme.

Part 5: Natural History of Morals He starts by claiming that morality is not objective, and no philosopher has ever succeeded in defining it beyond what applies to their time, village, country, church etc.

Furthermore, he states that we see much less than we believe, taking in only a larger generalisation of things and using prior-knowledge and bias to fill in the rest (comparing this to seeing a tree).Nietzsche then goes on to claim that modern society is inherently atheist, with the past ideas of .He claims that Christianity forces man to reject work in favour of a leisure class lifestyle (something that is detrimental).Those deemed as "bad" by the "great men" are those who belong to the lower class, who are characteristically common and mediocre in the eyes of the ruling class.Conversely, slave morality, represents the masses and herds, in other words, the tainted and mediocre stratosphere of Nietzschean society.Part 2: The Free Spirit He first claims that our truths are simplified creating our knowledge, that the truths put forward by philosophers are simply their own prejudices when they should be questioning themselves.He claims "free spirits" thrive in isolation, as their knowledge will only be misinterpreted by others, still he states also that such people must interact with the general populous to gather more knowledge.He argues against the way our society judges actions based on their motives, he claims we must look into the much more complex drives which set these actions about unconsciously.Nietzsche makes the important assumption that nothing is real other than our drives, passions and desires, all other things are simply those working in conjunction.It is so called because it is the lower class that created this morality system.This system considered kindness, pity, compassion, and peace as the "good." Instead of being a product of affirmation, however, the distinction between "good" and "evil" is made out of a sense of revenge against the strength of the upper class.

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