Historians estimate that their forebears set out from the Niger River delta around the beginning of the Christian era and over a period of 2,000 years colonized south and east Africa, reaching Mt. The women socialized their small children, teaching them the Bantu language and traditions, including agricultural practices.At the same time, however, as wives, the Bantu adjusted to the customs of their husbands.Skills essential in subsistence agriculture are learned primarily by imitation. The child nurse whose infant charge does not cry has learned by experience what is required for competent caretaking.
Historians estimate that their forebears set out from the Niger River delta around the beginning of the Christian era and over a period of 2,000 years colonized south and east Africa, reaching Mt. The women socialized their small children, teaching them the Bantu language and traditions, including agricultural practices.At the same time, however, as wives, the Bantu adjusted to the customs of their husbands.Tags: Philosophical Essays On TruthNon Dissertation PhdThe Perfect Guy EssayRubric For Grading An EssayEssays Of Night By Elie WieselSample Of Mla Research Paper
With the introduction of taxation by the British colonists, it became essential for men to earn wages.
"Pax Brittanica" and land demarcation put an end to the acquisition of new land.
Older children could be called upon to do agricultural work and relieve the women of some of their heavy workload.
However, once free education was introduced, and once it became obvious to the families that subsistence agriculture and cash cropping on small holdings was no longer viable, that literacy and school diplomas or even university degrees were essential for success in the modern world, most fathers and mothers decided that all children should attend school.
Education and the Kikuyu of Kenya The contribution of women to a society's smooth transition from preliterate to literate, from a relatively autonomous community to a member of a nation enmeshed in a world economy, has received too little attention from social scientists and policy makers.
When the economy and political organization of a society change, families who can adjust to the new conditions will fare the best.Schooling not only requires a major change in the family's daily routines and the division of labor, it also leads to major changes in the socialization of children.The teaching of signs and symbols requires radically different techniques of instruction.In 1974 the government instituted a policy of free education.Although families still were asked to contribute to the cost of building schools and buying books and supplies for their children, most six-year-olds were enrolled either in the nursery school or in the primary school.By the 1970s 85 percent of the seven-year-olds, 59 percent of the six-year-olds and 44 percent of the five-year-olds were either in nursery or primary school.Education was not free and not all families could afford to send all their five- and six-year-olds to primary school but they could afford nursery school.With no effective contraception and large families, with growing dependence on products of the industrial world, the need for cash continued to increase.As men found jobs in the towns and cities, women were left to take care of all farm work, including the tending of the livestock and cash crops.Working in a village in Kenya that is undergoing rapid social change, I have been able to observe the consequences of the introduction of schools and some of the adjustments women have made.Coping with change is not new to the Bantu women of sub-Saharan Africa. It was the policy of these colonists to arrange marriages of their women to the local inhabitants of the land they coveted.