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Graving which generates the cycle of birth and death is the cause of suffering.It is threefold: (i) Craving for sensual pleasures, (ii) Craving for being, and (iii) Craving for wealth and power. It is the transcendental reality, consciousness and bliss. Everything is impermanent; there is no permanent self. The way to nirvana is the eightfold path of right conduct, concentration, and insight.
In brief, the five aggregates which spring from attachment are painful.
He teaches neither self-indulgence nor self-mortification, but the middle path of moderation—right view, right speech, and right conduct. The whole of the teachings of the Buddha is summed in the four noble truths: (i) There is suffering; (ii) It has a cause; (iii) It can be stopped; (iv) There is way to stop it. He renounced the world to find out the remedy for suffering. He found the way to peace on earth, and preached it to the world. Union with the unpleasant is painful, painful is separation from the pleasant; any craving that is unsatisfied, that too is painful.
Ignorance is false knowledge of the impermanent as the permanent. There are ten indeterminable questions which are insoluble.
The cause and conditions of individuality are painful.
It is the eightfold path: (v) Right Livelihood, (vi) Right effort, (vii) Right mindfulness, and (viii) Right Concentration. There is only succession of momentary mental processes.
When the four noble truths are grasped, and craving or will-to-live is extirpated, there is no more birth. A past mental process has lived, but it neither lives, nor will it live.Destruction of egoism and will-to- live leads to extinction of attachment, aversion, delusion, and suffering.Nibbana is the extinction of desire, doubt, and sensual pleasures based on the reflection on nothingness. It is a phenomenon enduring for a moment and then passing away. Non-injury (ahimsa) in thought, word, and deed, is the comer-stone of moral life. When craving is destroyed the round of birth and death is ended, and nirvana is attained. They are subject to the inexorable law of becoming or dependent origination. The law of causation is subservient to the Moral Law or the Law of Karma. The Buddha’s teachings aim at the total extinction of suffering and attainment of nirvana here on earth. There are no permanent substances, but only impermanent qualities or phenomena. It is delusion of individuality which is the root of the cycle of birth and death. Philosophical wrangling is unavailing, for it generates self-conceit and scepticism. The Buddha teaches neither Being nor Non-Being, but Becoming. He was overpowered by abundant misery in the world. ‘Birth is attended with pain; decay is painful; disease is painful; death is painful. Causality: Dependent Origination (Pratltyasamutpada) 6. Religion of animal sacrifice, ritualism, and ceremonialism condemned. ) was overwhelmed with grief at the sight of disease, old age, and death.‘Verily, it is craving, causing the renewal of existence, accompanied by sensual delight, seeking satisfaction now here, now; there—that is to say, the craving for the gratification of passions, or the craving for a future life, or the craving for success in this present life.This is the noble truth concerning the origin of suffering. All pain arises from individuality which is due to ignorance (avidya).