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A parent may remove or retain the child from the other seeking to gain an advantage in expected or pending child-custody proceedings or because that parent fears losing the child in those expected or pending child-custody proceedings; a parent may refuse to return a child at the end of an access visit or may flee with the child to prevent an access visit or fear of domestic violence and abuse.
This is a technique favored by many ransom child kidnappers before the use of written ransom demands became the favored method.
Nancy Gamble's crime and subsequent trial were reported in detail in Baltimore Patriot (June 26, 1819).
Notable cases include the kidnapping of children by Nazi Germany (400,000 children kidnapped for possible Germanization), In Australia the 'stolen generation' is the term given to native Aboriginal children who were forcibly abducted or whose mothers gave consent under duress or misleading information so the government could assimilate the black population into the white majority.
Some other abductions have been to make children available by child-selling for adoption by other people, Neonatal infant abduction and prenatal fetal abduction are the earliest ages of child abduction, when child is expansively defined as a viable baby before birth (usually a few months before the typical time for birth) through the age of majority (the age at which a young person is legally recognized as an adult).
Most parental abductions are resolved fairly quickly. International child abduction occurs when a parent, relative or acquaintance of a child leaves the country with the child or children in violation of a custody decree or visitation order.
Another related situation is retention where children are taken on an alleged vacation to a foreign country and are not returned.
The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction is an international human rights treaty and legal mechanism to recover children abducted to another country.
The Hague Convention does not provide relief in many cases, resulting in some parents hiring private parties to recover their children.
When the child was recovered on May 23—through the efforts of members of the community who conducted a search—it was revealed that the child had been badly whipped by Gamble and bore bloody wounds.
Both Gamble and Thomas were tried for the crime of kidnapping and found guilty.