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The thesis employs a bricolage of theories within a sociological framework, through the lens of media logic, and draws on the author’s own perspective of working in a newsroom and, currently, in an academic media faculty.The research provides observed examples of the ways in which changing boundaries are impacting definitions of journalism and who is a journalist; it proposes best practice for the use of metrics and analytics in newsrooms that might better situate media outlets to serve their communities and survive in a rapidly changing media landscape; it offers suggestions for media scholars on best practice to perform research that better reflects newsroom routines particular to the use of metrics and analytics; the thesis contributes a new gatekeeping model that identifies two primary channels related specifically to the use of metrics and analytics: promotional and developmental; finally, the thesis demonstrates how a bricolage of complementary theories and the selection of multiple sites of study might best support the reflexive investigation of complex social structures within a rapidly changing field.This thesis argues for the urgent need to rethink that positioning, and offers an analytical framework to do so.
It shows how their migration ‘trajectories’ are a crucial resource as they make sense of the school, and how they draw together resources from other times and places as they do (a process I describe as ‘networking’).
The study also shows classrooms to be complex sociolinguistic environments with distinct interactional spaces, allowing the young people great flexibility as they encounter and negotiate the institution and each other.
Empirical research is based on ethnographic observation in four news organisations on two continents in three different countries: Norway’s national broadcaster, NRK, which has developed its own analytics system that uses both qualitative and quantitative data; The Canadian Press, Canada’s national news agency, which is exploring ways to track how its content is being used with little direct access to audience data; The Hamilton Spectator, a local newspaper in Canada making the shift from print to digital; and a similarly sized and situated local paper in the United Kingdom, The Bournemouth Daily Echo.
Participant observation and interviews were used to investigate how metrics and analytics impact newsroom routines; how journalists feel their work is impacted by the use of audience data; and how practices pertaining to the use of metrics and analytics are challenging the boundaries of journalism.
Regular disruptions to the social order can be characterized in several dimensions: 1) negative and positive disruptions, 2) the impact of disruptions on individuals and groups, 3) their quality as brief or more sustained, 4) routine and more unusual disruptions, and 5) the intimate to stranger relationships among those involved in a disruption.
A comparison of the Local and Rapid lines shows that they differ in terms of the consistency of branding and the physical features and amenities along the routes.Bus riding involves established norms and rules of behavior around waiting, boarding, riding, and alighting.Behaviors and incidents that occur outside this scope of normalcy are identified and considered disruptions.The literature on travel demographics and mode choice provides information about individuals and their travel patterns at the aggregate level and by using variables such as income, race/ethnicity, gender, and age.These findings provide useful insight into the modes that travelers use and the purpose, duration, and distance of trips.However, we know much less about the ways people experience travel, both physically and emotionally, and the effects these experiential aspects can have on individual travel decisions.This research uses ethnographic fieldwork methods to examine the experience of bus travel, and particularly behaviors, types of interactions, and social expectations on buses.Please use the 'Download' link(s) above to get a copy. If you need to make a general enquiry, please see the Contact us page.This thesis presents an ethnographic study of the role of users in user-centered design.This study also introduces the idea of "experiential reliability," or the consistency of experience.Fewer disruptions occur in the tighter social space of the Rapid buses, while the Local bus experience includes ongoing disruptions to the social order.