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Example: In this example the author is equating the character of a car with the character of the people who built the car. Begging the Claim: The conclusion that the writer should prove is validated within the claim.
Example: Arguing that coal pollutes the earth and thus should be banned would be logical.
Example: In this example, the author equates being a "true American," a concept that people want to be associated with, particularly in a time of war, with allowing people to buy any vehicle they want even though there is no inherent connection between the two.
Red Herring: This is a diversionary tactic that avoids the key issues, often by avoiding opposing arguments rather than addressing them.
But the very conclusion that should be proved, that coal causes enough pollution to warrant banning its use, is already assumed in the claim by referring to it as "filthy and polluting." Circular Argument: This restates the argument rather than actually proving it.
Example: In this example, the conclusion that Bush is a "good communicator" and the evidence used to prove it "he speaks effectively" are basically the same idea.Example: In this example, the two choices are presented as the only options, yet the author ignores a range of choices in between such as developing cleaner technology, car-sharing systems for necessities and emergencies, or better community planning to discourage daily driving.Ad hominem: This is an attack on the character of a person rather than his or her opinions or arguments.Ad populum/Bandwagon Appeal: This is an appeal that presents what most people, or a group of people think, in order to persuade one to think the same way.Getting on the bandwagon is one such instance of an ad populum appeal.There is no reason, without more evidence, to assume the water caused the person to be sick.Genetic Fallacy: This conclusion is based on an argument that the origins of a person, idea, institute, or theory determine its character, nature, or worth.One aspect of particular significance is logical correctness.In order to be a more effective problem solver, one should be able to recognize and avoid logical fallacies whenever possible.Specific evidence such as using everyday language, breaking down complex problems, or illustrating his points with humorous stories would be needed to prove either half of the sentence.Either/or: This is a conclusion that oversimplifies the argument by reducing it to only two sides or choices.