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In the best fitting model, the odds ratio (95% CI) of being a male CSO was 2.03 (1.24–3.31) for past-year gambling problems, 1.46 (1.08–1.97) for loneliness and 1.78 (1.38–2.29) for risky alcohol consumption.
However, problem gambling not only impacts those directly involved, but also a variety of their significant others [2–4].
The destructive effects of problem gambling include not only significant financial problems, but also emotional, relationship and social problems [5–8].
In the Norwegian study female gender was associated with being a CSO, whereas the Swedish study indicated that males were somewhat more likely to be CSOs than females .
Among the Norwegian population, young age, in particular two age groups under 44 years old, were found to be positively associated with being a CSO .
Also, divorced marital status [3, 9] and separated status  have been associated with being a CSO.
In regard to gender, single males have been found to be the most prevalent type of CSO, while being a single parent was more likely to be associated with being female.
Problem gambling not only impacts those directly involved, but also the concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers.
The aims of this study were to investigate the proportion of male and female CSOs at the population level; to investigate who the CSOs were concerned about; and to investigate sociodemographic factors, gender differences, gambling behaviour, and health and well-being among CSOs and non-CSOs.
Statistical significance was determined by chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests, and logistic regression analysis.
Altogether, 19.3% of the respondents were identified as CSOs.