How to Write an Effective Summary: Cover up the original article.
Compare: Shelley argued thus: "Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world." but She thought poets "the unacknowledged legislators of the world." or "Poets," according to Shelley, "are the unacknowledged legislators of the world." or Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner" concludes: "A sadder and a wiser man, / He rose the morrow morn." Often, a quotation you wish to use includes a pronoun instead of a name.Summarize an article or a larger section of an article whenever you simply want to present the author's general ideas in your essay.Summaries are most often used to condense larger texts into more manageable chucks.(1) For a quotation shorter than four lines, quotation marks are used and the page numbers fall inside the ending punctuation. Shannon Marcus: "Many of our student's personal decisions will have the inherent dangers of instant gratification, and so will their political decisions," (548).A quotation is usually introduced by a comma or a colon.Also notice that because I explained who wrote the book, what book it comes from, and on what page to find the quote in the book, the reader is easily able not only to find the source on his/her own to check my facts, but the reader is also more likely to believe what I have to say now that they know that my information comes from a credible source.In-Text Citation: Use an in-text citation in situations where you are not quoting someone directly but rather using information from another source such as a fact, summary, or paraphrase to support your own ideas.Example: When weighing the costs of college with the benefits of getting a degree, it is important to note that “the rate of return on investment in higher education is high enough to warrant the financial burden associated with pursuing a college degree” (Porter 464).Notice that it's clear within this sentence that I'm referring to a person’s belief or conclusion, but since this person's name does not appear at the beginning of the sentence, I have placed her name and the page number where I retrieved this information in parentheses at the end of the sentence.In other words, it is not enough to simply list the sources you used on a Works Cited page or References list.As your instructor reads your essay, he or she should clearly be able to see which sentences, facts, or sections of your essay came from Source A, Source B, Source C, etc. You can give credit to your sources within your text in two different ways: by using a signal phrase or by simply using an in-text citation.