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Finally, Rule 4 is to review: to make enumerations so complete and reviews so general that I should be certain of having omitted nothing (ibid).Descartes recognized that if he actually began by rejecting all of his previous views, he would be temporarily entering a no mans land in which he could believe or trust nothing until his final system of knowledge was well underway. Should he become an atheist, a drug peddler, or bank robber?To address this concern he established a provisional code of morals that he would follow, which would hopefully keep in on the right track until he completed his system of knowledge.
In the mid 17 century, though, rationalism was given a unique twist by philosophers who held that our most important mental concepts are innateor inbornand from these we deduce other truths with absolute certainty.
Advocates of this position were largely from the continental European countries of France, the Netherlands, and Germany, hence this new breed of rationalism is often called Continental Rationalism.
Similarly, the most organized cities are planned by a single architect from ground up, and this is the model that we should follow when expanding our knowledge.
Thus, Descartes says, we should being by clearing away our old and disordered schemes of knowledge.
Shortly after graduation he abandoned all study, and, disregarding his personal conviction that military life was idle and cruel, and became a military engineer for the purpose of traveling, seeing the world and discovering truth found both within himself and in the great book of the world, as he described it.
He sold all of his possessions and invested the funds, along with money from an inheritance and from patrons, which allowed him the privilege and freedom to travel and study most of his life.Thus he devised his own method, the starting point of which is to eliminate all former opinions and establish knowledge afresh only on solid foundations.According to Descartes, the knowledge that we typically attain through education and life experience is an unsystematic mixture of truths and falsehoods, and it is often impossible for us to easily distinguish between the two.He became as renown in science and mathematics as he was in philosophy, and his publications reflect this diversity.Descartes never married, although he fathered children and rationalized that, after all, he had never taken a vow of chastity.Alternatively, some suspected that he contracted the disease while nursing a French ambassador with pneumonia back to health.Methods of Investigation Like other thinkers of the time, Descartes was attracted to the notion of a scientific method of investigation, which when followed would enable him to make new discoveries and push the boundaries of knowledge.Specific direction for this came during his time in Europe when on three occasions Descartes dreamed of becoming a scientist and philosopher. His most fruitful time as an author was during his 20 year residence in the Dutch Republic where routinely stayed in bed writing until around noon.While he valued his privacy, and regularly changed residences to protect it, he nevertheless gained international fame through his writings.He describes here his own experience when applying this rule: The first of these was to accept nothing as true which I did not clearly recognize to be so; that is to say, carefully to avoid precipitation and prejudice in judgments, and to accept in them nothing more than what was presented to my mind so clearly and distinctly that I could have no occasion to doubt it.[Discourse on the Method] His point is that the foundation of his knowledge should be only facts that he knows with certainty and which he can recognize as such because of the clarity and distinctness that they display.