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Experimental results quantify the area in molecular contact necessary for bonding.
A dilute suspension of fibers in water is prepared and evenly distributed on a fine mesh.
The water is removed through the mesh and the remaining fiber mat is pressed and dried.
The fibers in paper bond to each other by six different mechanisms: interdiffusion, mechanical interlocking, capillary forces, Coulomb forces, hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals forces.
Reviews on fiber-fiber bonding and its mechanisms are given by numerous authors. paper, depends on the strength of these component fibers and the strength of the bond between these fibers.
The pulp was a mixture from spruce and pine (mass ratio about 80/20).
It had been cooked to a Kappa number of 42, and it was once dried and unbeaten. hydrogen bonding, Van der Waals forces and Coulomb forces, only become relevant if molecular contact - a distance closer than ~300 Å - is established.
It improves the bond strength by increasing the available contact area for the inter-molecular bonding forces. have adapted Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) microscopy to study the degree of bonding between cellulosic fiber-fiber surfaces, which they attributed to interdiffusion of the surface molecules.
Theoretically, the degree of interdiffusion is limited only by the polymer chain length, which is high for cellulosic fibers.
The process of papermaking requires substantial amounts of energy and wood consumption, which contributes to larger environmental costs.
In order to optimize the production of papermaking to suit its many applications in material science and engineering, a quantitative understanding of bonding forces between the individual pulp fibers is of importance.