0 or 1) according to the rule: Weight Change = (Pre-Weight line value) * (Error / (Number of Inputs)).
While the system is as ancient as air traffic control systems, like air traffic control systems, it is still in commercial use.
In 1962, Widrow & Hoff developed a learning procedure that examines the value before the weight adjusts it (i.e.
In 1949, Donald Hebb wrote The Organization of Behavior, a work which pointed out the fact that neural pathways are strengthened each time they are used, a concept fundamentally essential to the ways in which humans learn.
If two nerves fire at the same time, he argued, the connection between them is enhanced.
As a result, research and funding went drastically down.
This was coupled with the fact that the early successes of some neural networks led to an exaggeration of the potential of neural networks, especially considering the practical technology at the time.
Such systems "learn" to perform tasks by considering examples, generally without being programmed with task-specific rules.
For example, in image recognition, they might learn to identify images that contain cats by analyzing example images that have been manually labeled as "cat" or "no cat" and using the results to identify cats in other images.
Despite the later success of the neural network, traditional von Neumann architecture took over the computing scene, and neural research was left behind.
Ironically, John von Neumann himself suggested the imitation of neural functions by using telegraph relays or vacuum tubes.